Thursday, 31 December 2009
For the fine wine lovers amongst you the top ten most searched for wines included a Sauternes and a Second wine:
Chateau La Fleur Morange
Chateau Calon Segur
Chateau Clerc Milon
Alter Ego de Palmer
Mathilde de La Fleur Morange
Chateau Brane Cantenac
Chateau Lynch Bages
Chateau La Lagune
We had some surprises this year regarding your favourite petite chateaux as white Bordeaux and Bordeaux clairet have joined the ranks of their red brothers!
Chateau Sainte Marie
Domaine de Ricaud Bordeaux Clairet
Chateau Tour Chapoux
Chateau Les Tonnelles
Chateau Sainte Helene
Clairet du Chateau de Lisennes
Domaine de Ricaud Bordeaux Blanc
Whatever your preference we will continue to discover fine wines and their stories . . . and bring them to you along with a little bit of Bordeaux!
Wednesday, 30 December 2009
We had great fun exploring the colourful characters and histories of the Bordeaux Chateaux;
We discovered a swash buckling past in Bordeaux Pirates, Buried Treasure and Lafitte and Duhart Milon and the Corsair,
We found haunted chateaux and that vampires, witches, werewolves and goblins are aplenty amongst the vineyards,
Chateau La Fleur Morange picked up a vertiable host of awards and accolades, the ultimate being the town of Saint Emilion's celebration of the Julien's phenomenal success and La Fleur Morange's contribution to the wines of this famous appellation. To honour the quality of the Julien's work and the rise of La Fleur Morange to international acclaim throughout the world's media, the Jurade of Saint Emilion, the Mayor and the town gathered together to mark the occasion and the prestigious wine critic Robert Parker alerted wine lovers the world over to take note!
Our series on the Appellations of Bordeaux led us down many undiscovered paths and to the discovery of long lost Grape varieties.
Nick's work on Wine Investment opened up the very first EIS Scheme offering tax benefits which tie in with wine investment – the 1855 Club.
We found wines for the Circus, wines born under auspicious stars and Comet Vintages, wines drunk by moonlight, and revealed that wine is not only an aphrodisiac but also the elixir of life (apparently).
Nick tasted his way through the En Primeur 2008 Campaign and wrote an Open Letter to the Chateaux concerning the perpetual fiasco re pricing – and a possible solution.
We added hundreds of new drinks, cocktails and recipes to the Blogs covering everything from French regional fayre to old fashioned slow cooking and from rare Rosés to Other Rothschild wines.
We both hope that you enjoyed the Blogs and look forward to discovering new stories in 2010 for you!
Thursday, 24 December 2009
Lawful or not, mince pies have been around since medieval times and have been associated with Christmas since the 16th century or earlier. The original mince pie was a large oblong or oval pastry containing chopped meats and spices such as ginger. Dried fruit and other sweet ingredients were added to the filling for variety and also because they helped to preserve the meat without having to salt or smoke it. The initial mince pies were large rather than bite size. It is sometimes said that the large pies were cooked in an oblong dish and that the top often used to cave in. As a result the mince pie looked a little like a crib, in keeping with the Christian nativity story.
Over time the amount of meat in mincemeat was gradually reduced until it became the fruit only substance we know today. In addition, the pies became smaller. Apparently they were sometimes called "wayfarers' pies" because they were given to visitors over the Christmas period.
175 g/6 oz Shortcrust Pastry
1 medium cooking apple, peeled, cored and grated
175 g/6 oz mincemeat
150 ml double cream
25 g/1 oz almonds, chopped and toasted
Roll out the pastry and use to line an 18 cm/7 in flan ring. Prick all over with a fork. Stir the apple into the mincemeat and spread over the base. Bake in a preheated oven at 200°C/400°F/gas mark 6 for 15 minutes. Reduce the oven temperature to 160°C/325°F/gas mark 3 and bake for a further 10 minutes. Leave to cool. Whip the cream until stiff, then spread over the top of the flan, sprinkle with the almonds and serve at once.
By the middle of the 18th century, trifles included ratafia (almond-flavoured biscuits) or macaroons soaked in sweet wine, covered with custard and topped with whipped cream. The Victorians doted on trifle and Mrs Beeton, in her classic 1861 book ''Household Management'' gave 4 recipes for trifle and figured the total cost of a trifle at 5 shillings 6 pence.
For the base
4 trifle sponge cakes
4 almond macaroon biscuits
20 ratafia biscuits
4 tbsp sweet sherry
4 tbsp brandy
8oz (225g) fresh or frozen raspberries (defrosted)
For the custard
3 egg yolks
½ pint (275 ml) double cream
1 vanilla pod, split lengthways
1 oz (25g) caster sugar
1 level tsp cornflour
For the topping
¾ pint (350ml) whipping cream
2oz (50g) flaked almonds, lightly toasted
sprinkling of raspberries
Cut the sponge cakes in half and break the macaroon biscuits into rough pieces and arrange with the sponge pieces and ratafias in a glass serving bowl. Mix together the sherry and brandy and drizzle over the sponge and biscuit base. Pile the raspberries over the top of the sponge base.
To prepare the custard, scrape the vanilla seeds out of the pod into the double cream, and add the vanilla pod too. Heat the cream in a saucepan over a low heat. Do not let it boil. Remove the vanilla pod. Meanwhile in a basin, cream together the egg yolks, caster sugar and cornflour. Now gradually whisk in the hot cream. Return the custard to the saucepan and over a very low heat, continue to stir until the sauce thickens sufficiently to coat the back of a spoon. Do not let it boil. Remove from the heat and pour the custard over the sponge and fruit base. Shake the bowl a little to settle the ingredients. Cover with cling wrap and allow to cool. Whisk the whipping cream and top the trifle with it, decorate with almonds and raspberries.
Wednesday, 23 December 2009
Greek mythology tells of the beautiful princess Phyllis, who was left waiting at the altar on her wedding day by her intended, Demophon. Phyllis waited for years for him to return, but finally died of a broken heart. In sympathy, the gods transformed Phyllis into an almond tree, which became a symbol of hope. When the errant, remorseful Demonphon returned to find Phyllis as a leafless, flowerless tree, he embraced the tree. The tree suddenly burst into bloom, a demonstration of love not conquered by death.
Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC) of the Near East, or possibly a little earlier. A well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt (c. 1325 BC).
Sweet almonds are used in marzipan, nougat, many pastries (including French macarons), noghl and other sweets and desserts. During Medieval times frumentry (a pudding made from whole wheat and almond milk) was commonly served with meals of venison. One of the early European uses of almond milk was in the preparation of the French dessert blancmange, a delicate, all white, chilled custard whose British version of the 14th and 15th century, blancmanger, included shredded chicken breast, sugar, rice, and almond milk or ground almonds.
A traditional Christmas soup in Spain is Sopa de Almendras (Almond Soup) and it is delicious!
Sopa de Almendras (Almond Soup)
200g almonds, skinned and blanched
50ml olive oil
2 slices day old bread, crusts removed and diced
10 peppercorns, crushed
1.5 litres chicken or vegetable stock
1 tsp vinegar or lemon juice
ground cumin or cinnamon
Fry the almonds, bread, saffron and garlic in the oil, then put them in a blender with the peppercorns and cumin. Blend with the vinegar and a little of the stock to a purée. Mix this paste with the remaining stock in a suitable pan and bring to the boil. Simmer for 15 minutes and serve garnished with a few slivers of toasted almonds, croutons or some chopped parsley or mint.
Tuesday, 22 December 2009
Pecans first became known to Europeans in the 16th century; the Spanish explorer Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca is credited with writing about this plant. The Spaniards brought the Pecan into Europe, Asia, and Africa beginning in the 16th century. Thomas Jefferson planted Pecan trees, "Carya illinoinensis,' (Illinois nuts) in his nut orchard at his home in Virginia and George Washington reported in his journal that Thomas Jefferson gave him "Illinois nuts" which grew at Mount Vernon, George Washington's home.
Tradition holds that the French invented Pecan Pie soon after settling in New Orleans, after being introduced to the nut by Native Americans. It is sometimes referred to as "New Orleans Pecan Pie," and is often cooked for Thanksgiving.
1 cup maple syrup
2/3 cup sugar
¼ cup melted butter
1 tsp vanilla
1 cup coarsely chopped pecans
1 9-inch (23-cm) purchased or home made pie shell, unbaked
Preheat oven to 350ºF (180ºC). In a mixing bowl, beat together maple syrup, sugar, eggs, melted butter and vanilla with an electric mixer until slightly thickened, about 2 or 3 minutes. Stir in chopped pecans and pour the mixture into the prepared pie shell. Bake for 55 to 60 minutes or until a knife poked into the centre of the filling comes out clean. Let cool completely or serve slightly warm with whipped cream or ice cream.
Thursday, 17 December 2009
The walnut appears in Greek mythology in the story of Carya, with whom the god Dionysus (the god of wine) fell in love. When she died, Dionysus transformed her into a walnut tree. The goddess Artemis carried the news to Carya's father and commanded that a temple be built in her memory. Its columns, sculpted in wood in the form of young women, were called caryatids, or nymphs of the walnut tree.
Pickled walnuts are a traditional English pickle although there is doubt as to which country first pickled walnuts. The Pickled Walnut was certainly a common delicacy in early 1800s England. Charles Dickens mentions them in his book Pickwick Papers published in 1836. Today they are a delicacy found on tables mainly at Christmas time but many recipes can be found using them, more commonly cooked in with beef dishes or served with an English blue cheese such as Stilton.
One of the oldest recipes for Pickled Walnuts comes from Iran where walnuts are picked green in mid-summer, soaked for a lunar cycle in brine from the Caspian, rinsed thoroughly, then cooked to perfect tenderness in an open vat of honey, with fresh ginger, cinnamon, cloves and nutmeg added for flavour. This mid-summer treat was eaten "hot from the pot" as a village festival finger food, and enjoyed by young and old alike.
In Armenian cuisine, walnuts are preserved in sugar syrup and eaten whole. In Italy, liqueurs called Nocino and Nocello are flavoured with walnuts, while Salsa di Noci ("Walnut Sauce") is a pasta sauce originating from Liguria.
I have found an Austrian Christmas recipe using Walnuts which is marvellous wit a glass of Sauternes:
Rumkugeln - Rum and Walnut Balls Recipe
180 g (6 oz.) ground walnuts
150 g (5 oz.) icing sugar
80 g (3 oz.) grated dark chocolate
1 egg white
1 tbsp rum
For decorating: chocolate sprinkles
Combine all the ingredients, except the chocolate sprinkles, to form a workable dough. Let rest in the refrigerator one hour. Lightly moisten your hands; form the dough into small balls and roll in the chocolate sprinkles.
Wednesday, 16 December 2009
The Celts also believed that the Hazelnut tree was the tree of knowledge and the phrase "in a nutshell" probably derives from this legend because all wisdom is within the nut. Hazel is a favourite wood for magicians staffs, wands, walking sticks, self-defence and shepherds' crooks. It is even said that Moses wielded a hazelnut rod when he smote the rocks to make water come forth.
Hazelnuts are also known as Cob nuts or Filbert nuts, depending on the species of tree and Turkey is the largest producer of Hazelnuts in the world. Cob nuts were introduced to the UK in the 17th century and Kent still grows them. Unlike many other nuts, which are sold dried, Cob nuts are sold fresh. In the past Cob nuts were popular with mariners, as they kept fresh for months, and the Victorians were devoted to them and bred many new kinds. In 1913, plantations extended to over 7,000 acres, most of the orchards or “plats” being in Kent. Stored nuts were available from London wholesalers for most of the year, and fetched high prices. However, today, 200 - 250 acres of old plats survive, but new orchards are once again being planted, of Kentish Cob as well as other hazelnut varieties.
The modern name for Filberts has evolved from European folklore. The original name was connected with Saint Philbert's Day (Saint Filbert), the day that harvesting the nuts began, August 22nd, the day of observing the Saint's day of celebration. The famous Roman historian, Pliny, recorded that ‘hazels' (filberts) were frequently gathered by the Romans as food. Pliny believed that filberts had originated in Damascus, Syria, where they grew naturally in forests; however, archaeological records have shown some fossilized remains of filberts that were 5000 years old in prehistoric excavations from China.
Filberts are alleged to conjure up mystical powers and have been thought since ancient times to be used as ‘divining rods' to locate underground spring heads of water, buried treasure, minerals, ores, and as various remedies for illness and ailments of many kinds.
Hazelnuts are extensively used in confectionery to make praline and also used in combination with chocolate for chocolate truffles and hazelnut paste products (such as Nutella). In Austria and especially in Vienna hazelnut paste is an important ingredient in the world famous tortes (such as Viennese hazelnut torte) which are made there. Hazelnuts are also the main ingredient of the classic Dacquoise and in vodka-based Hazelnut liqueurs, such as Frangelico.
Chocolate Hazelnut Truffles
¾ cup icing sugar
2 tbsp cocoa
4 milk chocolate bars (1.55 ounces each)
6 tbsp butter
¼ cup whipping cream
24 whole hazelnuts
1 cup ground hazelnuts, toasted
In a large bowl, sift together icing sugar and cocoa; set aside. In a saucepan, melt chocolate bars and butter. Add the cream and reserved cocoa mixture. Cook and stir over medium-low heat until mixture is thickened and smooth. Pour into an 8-in. square dish. Cover and refrigerate overnight.
Using a melon baller or spoon, shape the truffles into 1-in. balls; press a hazelnut into each. Reshape balls and roll in ground hazelnuts. Store in an airtight container in the refrigerator.
Tuesday, 15 December 2009
The fig was such a staple food that Egyptian armies are recorded as having cut down the figs and vines of their enemies, and whole baskets of figs have been discovered among the tomb offerings of dynastic Pharaohs. Cleopatra ended her life with an asp brought to her in a basket of figs.
Figs were also a common food source for the Romans. Cato the Elder, in his De Agri Cultura, lists several strains of figs grown at the time. The fruits were used, among other things, to fatten geese for the production of a precursor of foie gras.
The Fig is found throughout the Mediterranean, Iran and northern India, and also in other areas of the world with a similar climate, including the USA, north eastern Mexico, as well as Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Figs can also be found in continental climate with hot summers, as far north as Hungary, and can be picked twice or thrice per year.
In the first half of the 16th century, the fig was brought to England by Cardinal Pole, a few years before Cortez introduced the tree to Mexico. Figgy Pudding – the precursor to what we know know as Christmas pudding – the famous 16th century carol We Wish You A Merry Christmas was written at this time:
We wish you a Merry Christmas;
We wish you a Merry Christmas;
We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Good tidings we bring to you and your kin;
Good tidings for Christmas and a Happy New Year.
Oh, bring us a figgy pudding;
Oh, bring us a figgy pudding;
Oh, bring us a figgy pudding and a cup of good cheer
We won't go until we get some;
We won't go until we get some;
We won't go until we get some, so bring some out here
We wish you a Merry Christmas;
We wish you a Merry Christmas;
We wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year.
½ pint milk
6oz dried figs
¼ pint brandy
3oz raisins or sultanas
2oz dried apricots
1oz dried apples
1 tbsp honey
¼ tsp ginger
¼ tsp cinnamon
On the day before making the pudding, place the dried apricots, prunes and apples to soak in water and place the raisins or sultanas to soak in the brandy. Remove the stones from of the dates and prunes. Butter a large pudding basin. Sift flour into a bowl. Stir in suet and mix to a fairly soft dough with cold water. Turn out on to a floured surface. Lightly knead until smooth.
Roll out two-thirds of pastry into a round and use to line a well-greased 2-pint pudding basin. Melt the honey and stir in the ginger and cinnamon. Add to the soaked fruits and brandy mixture. Mix well and place into the pastry lined bowl. Moisten edges of pastry with water. Cover with lid, rolled from remainder of the pastry. Press edges well together to seal. Cover securely with greased greaseproof paper or aluminium foil. Steam steadily for 2 hours. Ensure that the water does not evaporate, topping it up from time to time with boiling water. Turn out onto a plate and serve
Monday, 14 December 2009
In fact in 2008 researchers brought an extinct date palm back to life by resurrecting the oldest seed ever. They call it Methuselah, and the ancient seed was found at the cliff-side fortress of Masada. For centuries, the fruit seeds remained buried beneath the fallen citadel, once the luxurious palace of King Herod. The big question is whether Methuselah is a "boy," or a "girl" - in which case, researchers may be sampling its fruit by 2010.
In the Middle East dry or soft dates are eaten out-of-hand, or may be pitted and stuffed with fillings such as almonds, walnuts, candied orange and lemon peel, tahini, marzipan or cream cheese. Dates can also be chopped and used in a range of sweet and savoury dishes, from tajines (tagines) in Morocco to puddings, ka'ak (types of Arab cookies) and other dessert items.
Dates are also processed into cubes, paste called "'ajwa", spread, date syrup or "honey" called "dibs" or "rub" in Libya, powder (date sugar), vinegar or alcohol. Dates are also made into a sparkling date juice, used in some Islamic countries as a non-alcoholic version of champagne, for special occasions and religious times such as Ramadan!
Thursday, 10 December 2009
Brazil nut trees are enormous, frequently attaining the height of 40 to 50 metres or more, and can reach ages of 500-800 years old. The tree is found throughout the Amazon rainforest in Bolivia, Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador. As well as its food use, Brazil nut oil is also used as a lubricant in clocks, for making artists' paints, and in the cosmetics industry.
Brazil Nut and Fig Torte
4 cups brazil nuts
3 cups raisins
1 cup fig, dried
1 cup pitted dates
2 tablespoons lemon juice
1 teaspoon lemon rind
1 passion fruit, pulp of
To make the base: Blend base ingredients until there is a solid mass in the food processor (it should be very fine with the occasional chunk). Place on a plate and form into a cake shape.
To make the frosting: Blend frosting ingredients well. If the dates are very firm and resist blending, just blend partially and let soak about 15 minutes to soften. Blend until smooth and creamy, then frost the cake. Decorate with lemon zest or passion fruit pulp.
Tuesday, 8 December 2009
2 salmon portions
250g cream cheese
2 tbsp crushed capers
¼ cup dill sprigs, chopped
¼ cup chopped chives
4 large vol-au-vent cases
Place salmon fillets into a deep frying pan. Cover with cold water and place over a medium heat. Bring to a simmer and cook for 10 mins or until fish is cooked through. Drain, cool and flake. Preheat oven to 180C. Line a baking tray with baking paper. Combine cream cheese, eggs, capers, dill, chives, flaked salmon, salt and freshly ground black pepper in a bowl. Place vol-au-vents onto prepared tray. Spoon salmon mixture into vol-au-vents. Bake for 15-20 mins or until golden and heated through.
Monday, 7 December 2009
8 vol-au-vent cases
2 tsp butter
2 slices bacon, diced
1 tbsp minced shallot
6 oz mushrooms, chopped
pinch crushed garlic
pinch of chopped fresh thyme
¼ cup good beef stock
2 cups double cream
salt and freshly ground black pepper to taste
Melt the butter in a frying pan, add the bacon and shallots and sauté until the shallots are soft. Add the mushrooms and garlic and sauté for 2 minutes longer. Add the thyme, stock, and cream, and bring to a boil. Lower the heat to a simmer and cook until the sauce thickens slightly. Season with salt and pepper. Allow to cool slightly before spooning equal amounts of the filling into each vol-au-vent case. Garnish with parsley.
Friday, 4 December 2009
Vols-au-vent are said to have been created by the famous French chef Antonin Carême who made his fame in the early 19th century, cooking for royalty and the very rich. Carême baked Napoleon's wedding cake, and dazzled Britain's future King George IV at Brighton's Royal Pavilion. He created masterpieces for the Romanovs in St. Petersburg and soufflés flecked with real gold for the Rothschilds in Paris. He is credited with inventing the chefs hat, the vol-au-vent, the soufflé, and the service a la Russe (serving one dish after another in proper order) rather than the service a la Francaise (all at once).
You can buy preprepared vol-au-vent cases or you can make your own from puff pastry sheets using shaped cutters.
Chicken and Asparagus Vol-au-vent
1 large onion, finely diced
425g mushrooms, sliced
50g plain flour
600 ml chicken stock
1 tin (420g) cream of Asparagus soup
½ glass dry sherry
500g chicken breast, diced
36 small vol-au-vent cases
Preheat oven to 200 degrees C. In a large pan, melt butter over low heat. Stir in onions and mushrooms, and sauté until onions are soft. Stir in the flour and continue to cook for 4 minutes, stirring constantly. Pour in stock gradually, and continue to stir over a medium heat until thickened. Stir in asparagus soup, sherry, and chicken. Reduce heat to low, and simmer until the chicken is done and the sauce has thickened, about 10 minutes.
Meanwhile, arrange pastry shells in a large baking tray. Bake in preheated oven until golden brown, about 8 to 10 minutes. Allow to cool slightly before spooning equal amounts of the chicken filling into each shell.
Thursday, 3 December 2009
¾ cups flour
pinch baking powder
pinch cayenne pepper
¼ cup finely chopped pistachios or pecans
2 tbsp grated cheddar
1 tbsp freshly grated parmesan
¼ lb butter
150g stilton cheese, cut into 20 thin slices
¼ cup red wine jelly
20 seedless red grapes, sliced
Place the flour, baking powder, cayenne and salt in a bowl and whisk to combine. Mix the pistachios or pecans and cheeses. Place the butter in another bowl and beat until light. Add the dry ingredients and mix well until a loose dough forms. Transfer to lightly floured surface. Shape the dough in a ball and then form and press into a roll about 2 inches in diameter. Wrap in plastic wrap; chill 2 to 3 hours.
Preheat the oven to 300 F. Line a baking tray with grease proof paper. Cut the roll into ¼ -inch thick slices. Place on the baking tray, spacing them about an inch apart. Bake 15 to 18 minutes, or until a light golden brown. Set on baking rack and cool to room temperature.
Top each savoury shortbread with a thin slice of the cheese, a small spoon of the jelly and a slice of grape.
Wednesday, 2 December 2009
The word Canapé is French and means “couch”. Canapés are normally eaten in one bite and are often served during cocktail hours as they can be either salty or spicy, in order to encourage guests to drink more. A canapé may also be referred to as finger food, although not all finger foods are canapés. Crackers or small slices of bread or toast or puff pastry, cut into various shapes, serve as the base for savoury butters or pastes, often topped with a "canopy" of meat, cheese, fish, caviar, foie gras, purées or relish.
Smoked Salmon Canapés with Egg and Caviar
These canapés can be made with inexpensive lumpfish caviar or with the very expensive caviar if you prefer. To get perfect egg slices you can use an egg slicer sold at most kitchenware shops.
4 thin square slices of rye bread
½ cup spreadable cream cheese
8 to 12 slices smoked salmon
16 thin egg slices
3 to 4 tbsp caviar
chopped chives or dill to garnish
Spread the bread slices with the cream cheese. Arrange the salmon slices on top in a clean, single layer. Trim the very outer edges of each bread slice to get clean edges. Cut each bread slice into 4 squares. Top each square with a slice of egg. Top the egg with a small spoon of the caviar and garnish with chopped chives or dill.
Tuesday, 1 December 2009
Unlike cherry liqueurs and so-called “cherry brandies,” Kirschwasser is not sweet. The best Kirschwassers have a highly refined taste with subtle flavours of cherry and a slight bitter-almond taste that is derived from the stones. Kirschwasser is colourless because it is either not aged in wood or is aged in barrels made of ash.
Monday, 30 November 2009
The cheese originally comes from the Emme valley in the canton of Bern in Switzerland but France also makes Emmental de Savoie, from Savoy and Emmental Français est-Central from Franche-Comté, France and also has PGI status.
Friday, 27 November 2009
The Swiss claim that the French usurped the name from the region of Gruyère. Not so, say the French. In the Middle Ages, an officer of the French government called a “gruyer” presided over forest lands and collected taxes — in the form of cheese. It is this gruyer that their cheese is named after, claim the French, and they can show tax records that date back to the 1100s to prove it.
However in Roman times the Jura region was the homeland of an ethnic group called the Sequanes and Roman texts dated from 40 B.C. describe the cheese process used in Sequany — which is the same as that used in the making of Gruyère. So if you want to be pedantic Gruyère was acttually invented by the Romans.
After decades of fighting over the name, cheese makers in the Franche-Comté region decided that protecting the name “Gruyère” was hopeless and applied for an appellation under the name “Comté.” Savoy, too, renamed their cheese “Beaufort”. If you have a Gruyère style cheese and do not know its origins then there is one general rule of thumb - French Gruyère-style cheeses must have holes according to French agricultural law, whereas holes are usually not present in Swiss Gruyère.